Yosemite West Property &
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YWPHI was awarded five National Fire Plan grants between 2006 and 2011 by YWPHI. The successful completion of these five hazard fuel reduction projects with full inter-agency cooperation benefit all of Yosemite West. The following table summarzies the grants awarded to YWPHI that help protect your property.
|Grant Number||Total Project Cost||Funding Awarded||Matching Funds Provided||% of Match to Total Project Cost||Grant Status|
YWPHI has been awarded $94,350 provided by a National Fire Plan grant from the National Park Service through the California Fire Safe Council (FSC). The project is funded via the Cooperative Forestry Assistance, CFDA #10.664. The basis for this funding is for the support or stimulation of a public purpose under the Cooperative Forestry Assistance Act of 1978 as amended and the Consolidated Security, Disaster Assistance, and Continuing Approporiations Act of 2009, PL 110-329.
|Grant Number||Total Project Cost||Funding Awarded||Matching Funds Provided||% of Match to Total Project Cost||Project Name||Project Goals|
|11NPS-0113||$94,350||$70,684||$23,666||25%||Yosemite West Defensible Space Project Area YW-004||
Create defensible space on 44.45 acres in Yosemite West Project Area YW-004.
|February 2010||YWPHI submits application to the California Fire Safe Council.|
|June 2010||YWPHI receives grant award and submits Grantee Pre-Award Report to the California Fire Safe Council.|
|September 2010||YWPHI attends mandatory pre-award workshop by the California Fire Safe Council.|
|March 2011||The National Park Service (NPS) informed the California Fire Safe Council that it will likely be after the end of the current fiscal year (September 2011) before NPS knows if they will be able to fund the 2011 grants. This is the first time this has happened with NPS-funded grants through the California Fire Safe Grants Clearinghouse. Right now NPS is working with a 20% deficit and will only be able to fund the grants if they receive new funds and have some remaining at the end of their current fiscal year. All grant activities are on hold until further notice.|
|April 2011||Landowner submits signed Letter of Commitment, which gives permission for fuel reduction work to be conducted.|
|May 2011||NPS informed the California Fire Safe Council that the grant is in "the contract process," so it is a question of when, not if, funding will be released. The cultural and environmental compliance process started.|
|October 2011||NPS signs agreement with the California Fire Safe Council, which enables the project to go forward.|
|December 2011||NPS releases funding to the California Fire Safe Council.|
|January 2012||The California Fire Safe Council releases funding to the project's fiscal sponsor, which enables implementation of on-the-ground work to start. Put out a Request for Bid request for bid to prospective contractors. Completed agreement with successful contractor.|
|May 2012||Implementation of on-the-ground work starts on May 9, 2012 and is expected to be complete in four weeks.|
Implementation of on-the-ground work was completed on July 18, 2012. The project invested more than 1700 hours of labor for fuel reduction. The project scope was expanded to include a sawyer for the felling of the significant number of dead trees (regardless of dbh) in the project area.
We submitted the final progress report, photo monitoring and grant closeout report to the Fire Safe Council, and informed the project's fiscal sponsor of same.
YWPHI has been awarded $304,830 provided by a National Fire Plan grant from the U.S.D.A. Forest Service through the California Fire Safe Council (FSC). The project is funded via the Cooperative Forestry Assistance, CFDA #10.664. The basis for this funding is for the support or stimulation of a public purpose under the Cooperative Forestry Assistance Act of 1978 as amended and the Consolidated Security, Disaster Assistance, and Continuing Approporiations Act of 2009, PL 110-329.
|Grant Number||Total Project Cost||Funding Awarded||Matching Funds Provided||% of Match to Total Project Cost||Project Name||Project Goals|
|10USFS-ES321||$304,830||$266,830||$38,000 *||13%||Yosemite West Defensible Space & Shaded Fuel Break||
The deadline to complete all aspects of the grant is October 1, 2011.
|February 2009||YWPHI submits a concept paper to the California Fire Safe Council.|
|May 2009||YWPHI submits application to the California Fire Safe Council and receives grant award.|
|August 21, 2009||YWPHI attends mandatory pre-award workshop by the California Fire Safe Council.|
|December 2009||YWPHI awaits receipt of grant award documents from the California Fire Safe Council. Planning will start once the grant award documents are signed.|
|January 2010||YWPHI and fiscal sponsor sign grant award documents from the California Fire Safe Council. Federal envirnomental and cultural compliance process underway.|
|May 2010||California Fire Safe Council informs us that review of the federal envirnomental and cultural compliance process for work inside the community (Part I) is complete and work can proceed in this area only. Federal cultural and environmental compliance for areas outside the community (Part II) is ongoing and not complete, so work cannot start outside the community.|
|June 2010||YWPHI sends project information to property owners:
|June 14, 2010||The defensible space crew starts on-the-ground work inside Yosemite West.|
|August 9-20, 2010||Work on the defensible space project will halt for approximately two weeks. The crew will tentatively resume work inside Yosemite West at the end of August.|
|September 2010||The defensible space crew resumed on-the-ground work inside Yosemite West and will continue until the work is done and/or the snow starts flying.|
|September 30, 2010||The NPS fire archeology team conducts cultural surveys on project area outside the community.|
|November 12, 2010||We completed on-the-ground work inside the community for this season, treating 71 parcels (25 houses and 46 vacant lots) and chipping approximately 2000 tons. See Participating Parcels Map below. The two-year combined participation total is 172 parcels or 60% of all parcels in Yosemite West. Work has stopped for winter and will resume in late spring 2011.|
|November 16, 2010||The California Fire Safe Council informed us that the federal environmental and cultural resource compliance review of our project for work outside the community is successfully completed. No on-the-ground work in the project area outside the community was done in 2010; this work is tentatively scheduled to be done in summer 2011.|
|March 2011||We mailed an information packet to 64 owners of 84 parcels who did not participate in the defensible space project in 2009 or 2010 with instructions on how to sign up to participate.|
|May 2011||We put out a request for bids for work inside and outside the community, select contractors, and sign agreements for same.|
|June 7, 2011||The contractor starts defensible space work inside the community.|
|July 19, 2011||The contractor starts mastication for the shaded fuel break outside the community.|
|July 26, 2011||The contractor adds a hand crew to the shaded fuel break work outside the community.|
|July 27, 2011||The contractor completed on-the-ground defensible space work inside the community. This concludes all grant-funded chipping inside the community. The three-year participating parcels total 216 or 74% of all 294 parcels; 99 of 139 houses (71% of all houses) and 117 of 155 vacant lots (75% of all vacant lots). See the Project Outcomes and 2009-2011 Yosemite West Defensible Space Project map below.|
|August 24, 2011||The contractor completes all on-the-ground work both inside and outside the community. Implementation of the project is successfully completed.|
|October 11, 2011||We submitted the final progress report, photo monitoring and grant closeout report to the Fire Safe Council, and informed the project's fiscal sponsor of same.|
|Project Participation Overview at completion 8-24-2011||# Houses||# Vacant Lots *||Total # Parcels||Goal|
|Start of Project # Actual 2009||124||170||294|
|New construction completed and occupied||15||-15||0|
|End of Project # Actual 2011||139||155||294|
|* includes 9 structures under construction and not completed nor occupied as of 7-31-2011|
|2009 # Participants||58||43||101|
|2010 # Participants||25||46||71|
|2011 # Participants||16||28||44|
|Total # 2009-2011 Participating Parcels **:||99||117||216||73.5%|
|** excludes 6 parcels where owners gave permission but not treated due to access issues|
|as % of Total Participating Parcels||46%||54%||100.0%|
|as % of Total Parcels||34%||40%||73%|
|as % of Total Houses||71%|
|as % of Total Vacant Lots||75%|
|2009 Grant Goals # Participants||45||45||90|
|2010 Grant Goals # Participants||74||73||147|
|Total 2009 & 2010 Grant Goals:||119||118||237||80.6%|
|Grant Goal Exceeded / (Not Met)||(20)||(1)||(21)||-7.1%|
During spring 2011, we contacted property owners with details of the defensible space project with participation details. We will be targeting property owners who did not participate in 2009 or 2010. The fuel reduction to be conducted under the grant includes removing and chipping ladder fuels, coniferous trees less than 6 inches in diameter at breast height, and shrubs and trees near driveways and parking areas to create more vertical and horizontal spacing between shrubs and trees.
The grant funding cannot cover all the fuel reduction that needs to be done. Property owners need to address the following fuel reduction tasks with their own labor and/or at their own expense:
|Defensible Space Grants Overview|
|Fuel Treatment Description||2009 Grant Goal||2009 Grant Actual||2009 Grant Goal Exceeded||2010 Grant Goal||Total Goal (Approximate)|
|# parcels with houses||45||58||13||74||119|
|# vacant parcels||45||43||(2)||73||118|
YWPHI has been awarded $75,655 provided by a National Fire Plan grant from the U.S.D.A. Forest Service through the California Fire Safe Council (FSC). The project is funded via the Cooperative Forestry Assistance, CFDA #10.664. The basis for this funding is for the support or stimulation of a public purpose under the Cooperative Forestry Assistance Act of 1978 as amended and the Consolidated Security, Disaster Assistance, and Continuing Approporiations Act of 2009, PL 110-329.
With the successful completion of two prior National Fire Plan grants, full inter-agency cooperation is bringing more money to fund fire safety projects that benefit all of Yosemite West.
|Grant Number||Total Project Cost||Funding Awarded||Matching Funds Provided||% of Match to Total Project Cost||Project Name||Project Goals|
|09USFS-X0126||$75,655||$61,495||$14,160||19%||Yosemite West Improve Defensible Space Within Community||
The grant is to improve defensible space within the community by helping fund fuel reduction on parcels within Yosemite West. This is different from our previous grant, which funded a shaded fuel break on land outside of and around the perimeter of Yosemite West.
The primary goal is to reduce the amount of flammable fuels on vacant lots and create defensible space around all structures so that spot fires are less likely to occur, and when they do occur, fire fighters have a greater probability of suppressing them. Property owners will treat hazard fuels around their structures, their parking areas and driveways and on their vacant lots and along roads to create as much defensible space as possible. This will reduce the amount of fuels that could easily ignite and spread a wildland fire and improve access for firefighters. The work will be done using the standards outlined in PRC§4291 and in publications by the Fire Safe Council or Firewise Communities.
Please refer to the Yosemite West Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP) for additional information about this project. The project (#1) is summarized in Appendix H - Projects Summary. Appendix H also contains a Phase I Projects/Parcel Map that shows the area (YW-006) included in this project.
The project's measurable objectives include:
the number of parcels that participate translated into total acreage treated; and
improvement in the Hazard Values of structures from the 2008 Red Zone Survey results, which were mailed to homeowners on November 15, 2008.
Upon hearing the news, Mariposa County Fire Chief Jim Wilson said: "Congratulations on the successful grant. Thanks to YWPHI, Yosemite West is becoming a model community in Mariposa County."
|February 2008||YWPHI submits a grant proposal to the California Fire Safe Council.|
|March 2008||The California Fire Safe Council does not select this grant for funding in the first round.|
|November 2008||The California Fire Safe Council selects this grant for funding in a subsequent round.|
|March 2009||YWPHI expects to sign the grant agreements with the California Fire Safe Council and its fiscal sponsor. Once this administrative process is complete, we will start the planning phase. We will schedule planning meetings with property owners during early spring 2009 to enlist voluntary participation and explain the details of this project. We expect work will take place between May and July 2009.|
|April 2009||The California Fire Safe Council processed the signed grant agreement on April 9, 2009.|
|May 2009||Mailed Yosemite West Defensible Space Project information packet to all property owners of record in Yosemite West on May 5, 2009. The information packet contains these documents:
|May 2009||Community planning meetings to discuss the project are scheduled for:
18 people representing 24 parcels attended the meeting; 72% in person and 28% by conference call.
13 people representing 15 parcels attended the meeting; 69% in person and 31% by conference call.
|May 5, 2009||We received environmental impact clearance for the project.|
|May 16, 2009||We are currently waiting for approval that the project is in compliance with all applicable cultural resource laws before funds are released and work can be scheduled and started.|
|June 5, 2009||
The U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) informed us that they have completed their cultural resource compliance review of our project. BLM concurs that our project is in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). This is the last step in the review process prior to release of funds. As soon as the California Fire Safe Council receives the funds from USDA Forest Service, they will be able to make payments to our fiscal sponsor and work on the ground can start. The Fire Safe Council reminds us that they do not know when this will happen.
The cultural resources of concern are archaeological finds relating to activities of the Yosemite Lumber Company, which operated in the Yosemite West area between 1912 and 1923. These include steel cable and hardware such as pulleys, high-cut stumps, logging spur roads, and similar artifacts and features from logging operations. When the contractor encounters any artifacts or features that may be related to historic logging activities, the contractor will mark them with flagging tape or small flags, avoid disturbing them, note the type of find and the lot it is located on and provide this in written form to YWPHI.
|June 28, 2009||Deadline to sign up to participate in the project extended from July 1 to July 15, 2009.|
|July 2, 2009||The California Fire Safe Council informed YWPHI today that they received the grant funds from the U.S.D.A. Forest Service and authorized payment to the project's fiscal sponsor. We will be announcing the project's start date next week and contacting residents about scheduling work on their property.|
|July 11, 2009||Work on the defensible space project is scheduled to begin Thursday, July 23rd. The crew will be working in Yosemite West through mid September. If you have not already signed up to participate, we welcome sign ups through Friday, July 17th. Download the Tentative Work Schedule to determine the dates when we anticipate work will be done on your property; parcels are grouped into color-coded work zones.|
|August 31, 2009||Work is complete on 56% of the parcels, and in progress on an additional 11% of the parcels. Project completion is projected for October 7, 2009; scheduling issues, logistics, and equipment breakdowns required adjusting the original tentative work schedule.|
|October 8, 2009||We successfully completed all of the on-the-ground work on October 8, 2009. The project's goal was to conduct fuel reduction on 30% of the 293 parcels or 90 parcels (ie, 30% of the 109 acres or 36 acres) in Yosemite West. We exceeded the goal by treating 101 parcels (58 houses and 43 vacant lots) on approximately 37 acres. We estimate the project cut and chipped 1330 tons of fuel.|
|November 2009||To further measure the success of the project, the Mariposa County Fire Department compiled a Red Zone fire risk assessment of all houses in Yosemite West.|
|December 7, 2009||Mailed a summary letter of the 2009 Red Zone Fire Risk Assessment to every property owner of record in Yosemite West. View sample before and after pictures.|
YWPHI has been awarded more than $56,000 in two grants with funding provided by a National Fire Plan grant from the National Park Service through the California Fire Safe Council (FSC). In a first for the community, full inter-agency cooperation is bringing money to fund fire safety projects that benefit all of Yosemite West. We are all grateful to see this concept realized.
|Grant Number||Grant Award||Project Name||Project Goals|
|06NPS8949||$20,663||Yosemite West Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP) and Fire Safe Program||
|06NPS9093||$36,000||Yosemite West Shaded Fuel Break||
It has taken more than three years to go from concept to actual funding, but as of spring 2007, all is finally in place for the projects to start.
|December 2003||NPS comes to Yosemite West to discuss the importance of fuels management in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) areas. Read the December 14, 2003 meeting notes.|
|September 2004||Wildland Fire Associates, a consulting firm contracted by NPS, leads a community meeting to present their initial study of fire danger in and around Yosemite West. Read the September 25, 2004 meeting summary. Download the Proposed Fuel Management Strategy component of the Community Wildfire Protection Plan for Yosemite West and download the accompanying map of the Project Area. More information is available about the role of Wildland Fire Associates in fire safety.|
|February 2005||YWPHI Fire Safety Committee submits two concept papers followed by formal application forms requesting funds to make Yosemite West more Fire Safe to the California FSC Grants Clearinghouse, following the recommendations of Wildland Fire Associates. Read the Draft Yosemite West Community Wildfire Protection Plan prepared by Wildland Fire Associates.
|April 2005||California FSC Grants Clearinghouse awards YWPHI partial funding of $56,000 for the two grants.|
|April 2005||YWPHI meets the Yosemite/Sequoia RC&D who agree to be the fiscal sponsor.|
|May 2005||NPS and Wildland Fire Associates presents the Draft Yosemite West Community Wildfire Protection Plan to Yosemite West residents at the annual YWPHI Memorial Day weekend picnic.|
|February 2007||NPS signs agreement with California FSC to release grant funds.|
|March 2007||California FSC prepares and signs agreement with YWPHI and its fiscal sponsor Yosemite/Sequoia RC&D, which they also sign authorizing the release of funds to the RC&D.|
|May 2007||Charles Sikora is contracted as the Project Manager to manage our two grants. Founder of Sikora Forest Consulting, Chuck Sikora is a Registered Professional Forester, licensed Professional Land Surveyor and Real Estate Broker, and member of the Association of Consulting Foresters of America, Inc. with a Bachelor of Science degree in Forest Management. His more than forty years of forestry experience will help to ensure the successful completion of the projects.|
|September 2007||The Project Manager sends mailing to all Yosemite West property owners containing the Yosemite West CWPP Owner's Action Plan and the CDF General Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space.|
|October 2007||Construction of shaded fuel break underway on western boundary of Yosemite West.|
Construction of the shaded fuel break started around the northern and western boundaries of Yosemite West. The purpose of a fuel break is to change the behavior and character of any wildfire, so that it becomes a ground fire. A full fuel break would remove all vegetation, but a shaded fuel break leaves small woody plants among well-spaced trees. It is effective for fire safety while retaining the forest character.
There are two approaches for creating a shaded fuel break, either by using mechanical methods or fire. This project uses only mechanical methods because of safety concerns with the use of prescribed fire. On gentle slopes, mechanical methods will be used - a small bobcat-type tractor to move debris, and a chipper to dispose of the cut vegetation. On steeper slopes, hand crews with chainsaws will use the log-and-scatter technique.
Along the western boundary by the community burn pile, the vegetation was very dense. In some areas, hundreds of downed trees are piled on top of one another. A masticator (a machine like a rototiller mounted on the front of a tractor) will be used on these downed logs. The wood will remain on the ground, but its structure will have been changed into something that will not burn as readily. Another kind of masticator (a chipper mounted on the end of a small excavator or backhoe) will be used on some areas of brush.
Along the northern boundary, the topography and steep slopes often exceed 40% where chipping is not possible. The lop-and-scatter technique will be used to cut the slash into small pieces and place it on the ground. Over time, it will be incorporated into the soil structure.
|November 2007-present||The final CWPP was submitted to the Mariposa County Fire Department, Cal Fire and the County Sheriff on November 25, 2007 for their comments and approval before being presented to the Mariposa County Board of Supervisors for formal adoption. This process is still in progress as of May 2008.|
May 4-10, 2008 is Wildfire Awareness Week whose themes this year build upon Defensible Space is Your Responsibility and Wildfires...Will Your Home Survive?. Homeowners need to play an active role in helping themselves and neighbors, and everyone's property survive a wildfire. Participate in community fire safety activities this spring. Read the Governor's proclamation.
Work on the shaded fuel break will resume the week of May 12th now that the snow has melted.
Yosemite West becomes the first Mariposa County community to complete a Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP).
At their June 17 meeting, the Mariposa County Board of Supervisors unanimously approved a Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP) for Yosemite West. Yosemite West is the first Mariposa County community to complete a CWPP, which will become part of the overall Mariposa County CWPP that is being prepared by the Mariposa County Fire Safe Council. The Board of Supervisors' approval was the final step in a process that included approval by Mariposa County Fire Department's Chief Jim Wilson, Cal Fire's Chief Mikel Martin, and Yosemite National Park's Fire Use Manager Michael Beasley.
The non-profit Yosemite West Property & Homeowners, Inc. (YWPHI) was awarded a grant in 2006 from the National Park Service administered by the California Fire Safe Council to complete its CWPP. YWPHI used this federal funding, and matching funds from the Mariposa County Fire Department and Yosemite West property owners, along with support from its fiscal sponsor, the Yosemite/Sequoia Resource Conservation & Development Council, to complete the vital project.
A CWPP is a planning tool for at-risk communities in the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI), areas where homes meet with undeveloped wildlands, to identify and reduce the risk of wildfire across the landscape and jurisdictional boundaries. It is developed through a collaborative process that identifies and prioritizes potential solutions, so that when funding is sought to address wildfire issues, there is a comprehensive overall plan from which to start. A CWPP neither guarantees funding nor regulates actions, but communities with completed plans have a competitive edge for grants for hazard fuel reduction projects.
Wildfires in California have destroyed homes and entire neighborhoods, garnered national media attention, and created momentum for the passage of federal and state legislation addressing wildfire risk. A CWPP is a crucial step in communities working to protect themselves.
Download the press release.
The Yosemite West CWPP on CD was mailed to every property owner of record in Yosemite West.
Construction of the shaded fuel break was completed on October 10th. View a map of the 25-acre shaded fuel break.
The data analysis of the Red Zone Fire Risk Assessment Survey conducted in August 2008 was completed. The Red Zone survey was first conducted in 2004 and updated in summer 2008. In mid-November, a parcel-specific report will be mailed to every property owner of record in Yosemite West with a structure.
Fall 2008 marks the successful completion of the two grants. We have many people to thank who contributed valuable time and resources to these fire safety projects during the almost five years from the time they were conceptualized in December 2003 through planning, funding and completion in November 2008. Please take a moment to read the names of the dozens of people from federal, state and county agencies, the private sector and volunteers who have worked on behalf of Yosemite West and its future.
Thank you to the National Park Service: Mike Tollefson, Superintendent; Kelly Martin, Chief of Fire and Aviation Management; her predecessor, Tom Nichols; Deron Mills, Deputy FMO; Mike Beasley, Fire Use Manager; Jun Kinoshita, archeologist; Christie Neill, Deputy FMO; Don Coffman; Gary Wuchner, Fire Education and Information Manager; Deb Schweizer, Fire Information Specialist; Jeff Panetta. NPS consultants Dan O'Brien and Carl Douhan from Wildland Fire Associates, and Esther Mandeno from Digital Mapping Solutions.
From CalFire: Fire Chief Mikel Martin; Kevin Smith, Mariposa Battalion Chief; Roger Simma, Battalion Chief; Ryan Williams, Pre-Fire Engineer; Karen Guillemin, Fire Prevention Specialist; and Fire Prevention Captains Paul Alvarez and Brian Cacho.
From the U.S.D.A. Forest Service: the retired Smiley Tierney; Dan Tune; and John Brinley, Fire Prevention Technician.
From the California Fire Safe Council: Dan Lang, Sierra Region Grants Manager; and his predecessor, Brenda Rightmyer.
From the Mariposa County Fire Safe Council: Jan Hamilton, Kimberly Bullock, and Sean Rankin and his Terra Firma crew.
From Mariposa County: Fire Chief Jim Wilson; his predecessor Blaine Schultz; Deputy Fire Chief Jim Middleton, and Sheriff Brian Muller.
From the University of California at Berkeley's Center for Fire Research: Max Moritz, Director; Faith Kearns, Ph.D., Casey Cleve; Stephanie Waite; and their team of field researchers.
From the Yosemite/Sequoia Resource Conservation and Development Council, YWPHI's fiscal sponsor without whom this process would not have been possible: Bob Pickard, President; Robyn Smith, Director; Nancy Buck, bookkeeper; and Peter Thai, volunteer.
And thanks to Chuck Sikora of Sikora Forest Consulting. Lastly, thanks goes to you, the property owners who each year rake pine needles, haul debris to the burn pile, reduce ladder fuels, participate in the chipping program, attend the community educational presentations, and help your neighbors. We apologize if we have omitted anyone's name from this list it was clearly a dedicated team effort.
Please note that the Yosemite West Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP) is entirely independent from and unrelated to the Yosemite West Special Plan, the Mariposa County General Plan, and any other planning documents that address zoning and land use issues.
YWPHI is a registered non-profit organization, but it is not exempt from paying federal income taxes. To avoid federal tax liability on the grants, YWPHI cannot receive or distribute any funds directly. The Yosemite/Sequoia Resource, Conservation & Development Council (RC&D) agreed to be the fiscal sponsor for YWPHI. The 2009 grant funds will flow from the USDA Forest Service to the California FSC directly to the RC&D, and from the RC&D to contractors, etc. View a flow chart showing how grant funds will be paid.
Please email the Chair of the YWPHI Fire Safety Committee with any general questions you may have.Back to << Fire Safety in Yosemite West
Copyright text © Yosemite West Property & Homeowners, Inc. 2003-2012, Copyright photographs © John Mock 2004-2012.
All rights reserved. Unauthorized redistribution of this document is prohibited. Updated August 21, 2012.